FACTORIES ACT, 1948
FACTORIES ACT, 1948
FACTORIES ACT, 1948
[Act No. 63 of Year 1948 dated 23rd. September, 1948]
An Act to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories.
WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories;
It is hereby enacted as follows: -
CHAPTER I :PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent and commencement
(1) This Act may be called the Factories Act, 1948.
1[(2) It extends to the whole of India 2[* * *].
(3) It shall came into force on the lst day of April, 1949.
In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-
(a) "adult" means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of age;
(b) "adolescent" means a person who has completed his fifteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year;
3[(bb) "calendar year" means the period of twelve months beginning with the first day of January in any year;]
(c) "child" means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year of age;
4[(ca) "competent person", in relation to any provision of this Act, means a person or an institution recognised as such by the Chief Inspector for the purposes of carrying out tests, examinations and inspections required to be done in a factory under the provisions of this Act having regard to-
(i) the qualifications and experience of the person and facilities available at his disposal; or
(ii) the qualifications and experience of the persons employed in such institution and facilities available therein,
with regard to the conduct of such tests, examinations and inspections, and more than one person or institution can be recognised as a competent person in relation to a factory;
(cb) "hazardous process" means any process or activity in relation to an industry specified in the First Schedule where, unless special care is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or finished products, bye-products, wastes, or effluents thereof would-
(i) cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged in or connected therewith, or
(ii) result in the pollution of the general environment:
PROVIDED that the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the First Schedule by way of addition, omission or variation of any industry, specified in the said Schedule;]
(d) "young person" means a person who is either a child or an adolescent;
(e) "day" means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at midnight;
(f) "week" means a period of seven days beginning at midnight on Saturday night or such other night as may be approved in writing for a particular area by the Chief Inspector of Factories;
(g) "power" means electrical energy, or any other form of energy which is mechanically transmitted and is not generated by human or animal agency;
(h) "prime mover" means any engine, motor or other appliance which generates or otherwise provides power;
(i) "transmission machinery" means any shaft, wheel drum, pulley, system of pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance;
(j) "machinery" includes prime movers, transmission machinery and all other appliances whereby power is generated, transformed, transmitted or applied;
(k) "manufacturing process" means any process for-
(i) making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing, or otherwise treating or adapting any article or substance with a view to its use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal, or
5[(ii) pumping oil, water, sewage or any other substance; or]
(iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or
6[(iv) composing types for printing, printing by letter press, lithography, photogravure or other similar process or book binding;] 7[or]
(v) constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting, finishing or breaking up ships or vessels; 7[or]
7[(vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage;]
(l) "worker" means a person 8[employed, directly or by or through any agency (including a contractor) with or without the knowledge of the principal employer, whether for remuneration or not], in any manufacturing process, or in cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process, or in any other kind of work incidental to, or connected with, the manufacturing process, or the subject of the manufacturing process 7[but does not include any member of the armed forces of the Union];
(m) "factory" means any premises including the precincts thereof-
(i) whereon ten or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on, or
(ii) Whereon twenty or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on,-
but does not include a mine subject to the operation of 9[the Mines Act, 1952 (35 of 1952)] or 10[a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union, a railway running shed or a hotel, restaurant or eating place].
7[Explanation 11[I] : For computing the number of workers for the purposes of this clause all the workers in 12[different groups and relays] in a day shall be taken into account;]
13[Explanation II: For the purposes of this clause, the mere fact that an Electronic Data Processing Unit or a Computer Unit is installed in any premises or part thereof, shall not be construed to make it a factory if no manufacturing process is being carried on in such premises or part thereof;]
(n) "occupier" of a factory means the person who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory 14[***];
(i) in the case of a firm or other association of individuals, any one of the individual partners or members thereof shall be deemed to be the occupier;
(ii) in the case of a company, any one of the directors shall be deemed to be the occupier;
(iii) in the case of a factory owned or controlled by the Central Government or any State Government, or any local authority, the person or persons appointed to manage the affairs of the factory by the Central Government, the State Government or the local authority, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the occupier:]
7[15[PROVIDED FURTHER that] in the case of a ship which is being repaired, or on which maintenance work is being carried out, in a dry dock which is available for hire,-
(1) the owner of the dock shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under
(a) section 6, section 7, 4[section 7A, section 7B,] section 11 or section 12;
(b) section 17, in so far as it relates to the providing and maintenance of sufficient and suitable lighting in or around the dock;
(c) section 18, section 19, section 42, section 46, section 47 or section 49, in relation to the workers employed on such repair or maintenance;
(2) the owner of the ship or his agent or master or other office-in-charge of the ship or any person who contracts with such owner, agent or master or other officer-in-charge to carry out the repair or maintenance work shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under section 13, section 14, section 16 or section 17 (save as otherwise provided in this proviso) or Chapter IV (except section 27) or section 43, section 44, or section 45, Chapter VI, Chapter VII, Chapter VIII or Chapter IX or section 108, section 109 or section 110, in relation to-
(a) the workers employed directly by him, or by or through any agency; and
(b) the machinery, plant or premises in use for the purpose of carrying out such repair or maintenance work by such owner, agent, master or other officer-in-charge or person;]
(p) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made by the State Government under this Act;
17[* * *]
(r) where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more sets of workers working during different periods of the day, each of such sets is called a 18["group" or "relay"] and each of such periods is called a "shift".
Comment: Reading these provisions together, it is quite reasonable and legitimate to hold that a person to be a worker within the meaning of the Factories Act must be a person employed in the premises or the precincts of the factory. As held by this court in the State of Uttar Pradesh v. M. P. Singh (1960) 2 SCR 605: (AIR 1960 SC 569) field workers who are employed in guiding, supervising and controlling the growth and supply of sugar cane to be used in the factory are not employed either in the precincts of the factory or in the premises of the factory. Hence the provisions of the Factories Act do not apply to them. AIR 1978 SUPREME COURT 849, Rohtas Industries Ltd v. Ramlakhan Singh
3. References to time of day
In this Act references to time of day are references to Indian Standard Time, being five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time:
PROVIDED that for any area in which Indian Standard Time is not ordinarily observed the State Government may make rules,-
(a) specifying the area,
(b) defining the local mean time ordinarily observed therein, and
(c) permitting such time to be observed in all or any of the factories situated in the area.
6[4. Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or two or more factories to be a single factory
The State Government may, 4[on its own or] on an application made in this behalf by an occupier, direct, by an order in writing 4[and subject to such conditions as it may deem fit], that for all or any of the purposes of this act different departments or branches of a factory of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as separate factories or that two or more factories of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as a single factory:]
19[PROVIDED that no order under this section shall be made by the State Government on its own motion unless an opportunity of being heard is given to the occupier.]
5. Power to exempt during public emergency
In any case of public emergency the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt any factory or class or description of factories from all or any of the provisions of this Act 20[except section 67] for such period and subject to such conditions as it may think fit:
PROVIDED that no such notification shall be made for a period exceeding three months at a time.
7[Explanation: For the purposes of this section "public emergency" means a grave emergency whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance.]
6. Approval, licensing and registration of factories
(1) The State Government may make rules-
22[(a) requiring, for the purposes of the Act, the submission of plans of any class or description of factories to the Chief Inspector or the State Government;]
21[(aa) requiring the previous permission in writing of the State Government or the Chief Inspector to be obtained for the site on which the factory is to be situated and for the construction or extension of any factory or class or description of factories;
(b) requiring for the purpose of considering applications for such permission the submission of plans and specifications;
(c) prescribing the nature of such plans and specifications and by whom they shall be certified;
(d) requiring the registration and licensing of factories or any class or description of factories, and prescribing the fees payable for such registration and licensing and for the renewal of licenses;
(e) requiring that no licence shall be granted or renewed unless the notice specified in section 7 has been given.
(2) If on an application for permission referred to in 22[clause (aa)] of sub-section (1) accompanied by the plans and specifications required by the rules made under clause (b) of that sub-section, sent to the State Government or Chief Inspectors by registered post, no order is communicated to the applicant within three months from the date on which it is so sent, the permission applied for in the said application shall be deemed to have been granted.
(3) Where a State Government or a Chief Inspector refuses to grant permission to the site, construction or extension of a factory or to the registration and licensing of a factory, the applicant may within thirty days of the date of such refusal appeal to the Central Government if the decision appealed from was of the State Government and to the State Government in any other case.
Explanation: A factory shall not be deemed to be extended within the meaning of this section by reason only of the replacement of any plant or machinery, or within such limits as may be prescribed, of the addition of any plant or machinery 7[if such replacement or addition does not reduce the minimum clear space required for safe working around the plant or machinery or adversely affect the environmental conditions from the evolution or emission of steam, heat or dust or fumes injurious to health.]
7. Notice by occupier
(1) The occupier shall, at least fifteen days before he begins to occupy or use any premises as a factory, send to the Chief Inspector a written notice containing-
(a) The name and situation of the factory;
(b) the name and address of the occupier;
23[(bb) the name and address of the owner of the premises or building (including the precincts thereof) referred to in section 93;]
(c) the address to which communications relating to the factory may be sent;
(d) the nature of the manufacturing process-
(i) carried on in the factory during the last twelve months in the case of factories in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act; and
(ii) to be carried on in the factory during the next twelve months in the case of all factories;
5[(e) the total rated horse power installed or to be installed in the factory, which shall not include the rated horse power of any separate stand-by plant;]
(f) the name of the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act;
(g) the number of workers likely to be employed in the factory;
(h) the average number of workers per day employed during the last twelve months in the case of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act;
(i) such other particulars as may be prescribed.
(2) In respect of all establishments which come within the scope of the Act for the first time, the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) within thirty days from the date of the commencement of this Act.
(3) Before a factory engaged in a manufacturing process which is ordinarily carried on for less than one hundred and eighty working days in the year resumes working, the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) 24[at least thirty days] before the date of the commencement of work.
(4) Whenever a new manager is appointed, the occupier shall send to the 25[Inspector a written notice and to the Chief Inspector a copy thereof] within seven days from the date on which such person takes over charge.
(5) During any period for which no person has been designated as manager of a factory or during which the person designated does not manage the factory, any person found acting as a manager, or if no such person is found, the occupier himself, shall be deemed to be the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act.
CHAPTER II : THE INSPECTING STAFF
26[7A. General duties of the occupier
(1) Every occupier shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all workers while they are at work in the factory.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the matters to which such duty extends, shall include-
(a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in the factory that are safe and without risks to health;
(b) the arrangements in the factory for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances;
(c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of all workers at work;
(d) the maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and egress from, such places as are safe and without such risks;
(e) the provision, maintenance or monitoring of such working environment in the factory for the workers that is safe, without risks to health and adequate as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work.
(3) Except in such cases as may be prescribed, every occupier shall prepare, and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written statement of his general policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers at work and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the workers in such manner as may be prescribed.
7B. General duties of manufacturers, etc., as regards articles and substances for use in factories
(1) Every person who designs, manufactures, imports or supplies any article for use in any factory, shall-
(a) ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article is so designed and constructed as to be safe and without risks to the health of the workers when properly used;
(b) carry out or arrange for the carrying out of such tests and examination as may be considered necessary for the effective implementation of the provisions of clause (a);
(c) take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that adequate information will be available
(i) in connection with the use of the article in any factory;
(ii) about the use for which it is designed and tested; and
(iii) about any conditions necessary to ensure that the, when put to such use, will be safe, and without risks to the health of the workers:
PROVIDED that where an article is designed or manufactured outside India, it shall be obligatory on the part of the importer to see-
(a) that the article conforms to the same standards if such article is manufactured in India, or
(b) if the standards adopted in the country outside for the manufacture of such article is above the standards adopted in India, that the article conforms to such standards.
(2) Every person, who undertakes to design or manufacture any article for use in any factory may carry out or arrange for the carrying out of necessary research with a view to the discovery and, so far as is reasonably practicable, the elimination or minimisation of any risks to the health or safety of the workers to which the design or article may give rise.
(3) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be construed to require a person to repeat the testing, examination or research which has been carried out otherwise than by him or at his instance in so far as it is reasonable for him to rely on the results thereof for the purposes of the said sub-sections.
(4) Any duty imposed on any person by sub-sections (1) and (2) shall extend only to things done in the course of business carried on by him and to matters within his control.
(5) Where a person designs, manufactures, imports or supplies an article on the basis of a written undertaking by the user of such article to take the steps specified in such undertaking to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article will be safe and without risks to the health of the workers when properly used, the undertaking shall have the effect of relieving the person designing, manufacturing, importing or supplying the article from the duty imposed by clause (a) of sub-section (1) to such extent as is reasonable having regard to the terms of the undertaking.
(6) For the purposes of this section, an article is not to be regarded as properly used if it is used without regard to any information or advice relating to its use which has been made available by the person who has designed, manufactured, imported or supplied the article.
Explanation : For the purposes of this section, "article" shall include plant and machinery.]
CHAPTER II : THE INSPECTING STAFF
(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as possess the prescribed qualification to be Inspectors for the purposes of this Act and may assign to them such local limits as it may think fit.
(2) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint any person to be a Chief Inspector who shall, in addition to the powers conferred on a Chief Inspector under this Act, exercise the powers of an Inspector through out the State.
7[(2A) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint as many Additional Chief Inspectors, Joint Chief Inspectors and Deputy Chief Inspectors and as many other officers as it thinks fit to assist the Chief Inspector and to exercise such of the powers of the Chief Inspector as may be specified in such notification.
(2B) Every Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector and every other officer appointed under sub-section (2A) shall, in addition to the powers of a Chief Inspector specified in the notification by which he is appointed, exercise the powers of an Inspector throughout the State.]
(3) No person shall be appointed under sub-section (1), sub-section (2) 7[,sub-section (2A)] or sub-section (5) or, having been so appointed, shall continue to hold office, who is or becomes directly or indirectly interested in a factory or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith.
(4) Every District Magistrate shall be an Inspector for his district.
(5) The State Government may also, by notification as aforesaid, appoint such public officers as it thinks fit to be additional Inspectors for all or any of the purposes of this Act, within such local limits as it may assign to them respectively.
(6) In any area where there are more Inspectors than one the State Government may, by notification as aforesaid, declare the powers, which such Inspectors shall respectively exercise and the Inspector to whom the prescribed notices are to be sent.
(7) 27[Every Chief Inspector, Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector, Inspector and every other officer appointed under this section] shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and shall be officially subordinate to such authority as the State Government may specify in this behalf.
9. Powers of Inspectors
Subject to any rules made in this behalf, an Inspector may, within the local limits for which he is appointed,-
(a) enter, with such assistants, being persons in the service of the government, or any local or other public authority, 4[or with an expert] as he thinks fit, any place which is used, or which he has reason to believe is used, as a factory;
28[(b) make examination of the premises, plant, machinery, article or substance;
(c) inquire into any accident or dangerous occurrence, whether resulting in bodily injury, disability or not, and take on the spot or otherwise statements of any person which he may consider necessary for such inquiry;
(d) require the production of any prescribed register or any other document relating to the factory;
(e) seize, or take copies of, any register, record or other document or any portion thereof as he may consider necessary in respect of any offence under this Act, which he has reason to believe, has been committed;
(f) direct the occupier that any premises or any part thereof, or anything lying therein, shall be left undisturbed (whether generally or in particular respects) for so long as is necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b);
(g) take measurements and photographs and make such recordings as he considers necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b), taking with him any necessary instrument or equipment;
(h) in case of any article or substance found in any premises, being an article or substance which appears to him as having caused or is likely to cause danger to the health or safety of the workers, direct it to be dismantled or subject it to any process or test (but not so as to damage or destroy it unless the same is, in the circumstances necessary, for carrying out the purposes of this Act), and take possession of any such article or substance or a part thereof, and detain it for so long as is necessary for such examination;
(i) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed:]
PROVIDED that no person shall be compelled under this section to answer any question or give any evidence tending to incriminate himself.
10. Certifying surgeons
(1) The State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners to be certifying surgeons for the purposes of this Act within such local limits or for such factory or class or description of factories as it may assign to them respectively.
(2) A certifying surgeon may, with the approval of the State Government, authorise any qualified medical practitioner to exercise any of his powers under this Act for such period as the certifying surgeon may specify and subject to such conditions as the State Government may think fit to impose, and references in this Act to a certifying surgeon shall be deemed to include references to any qualified medical practitioner when so authorised.
(3) No person shall be appointed to be, or authorised to exercise the powers of a certifying surgeon, or having been so appointed or authorised, continue to exercise such powers, who is or becomes the occupier of a factory or is or becomes directly or indirectly interested therein or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith or is otherwise in the employ of the factory:
7[PROVIDED that the State Government may, by order in writing and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order, exempt any person or class of persons from the provisions of this sub-section in respect of any factory or class or description of factories.]
(4) The certifying surgeon shall carry out such duties as may be prescribed in connection with-
(a) the examination and certification of young persons under this Act;
(b) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such dangerous occupations or processes as may be prescribed;
(c) the exercising of such medical supervision as may be prescribed for any factory or class or description of factories where-
(i) cases of illness have occurred which it is reasonable to believe are due to the nature of the manufacturing process carried on, or other conditions of work prevailing, therein;
(ii) by reason of any change in the manufacturing process carried on or in the substances used therein or by reason of the adoption of any new manufacturing process or of any new substance for use in a manufacturing process, there is a likelihood of injury to the health of workers employed in that manufacturing process;
(iii) young persons are, or are about to be, employed in any work which is likely to cause injury to their health.
Explanation: In this section "qualified medical practitioner" means a person holding a qualification granted by an authority specified in the Schedule to the Indian Medical Degrees Act, 1916, or in Schedules to the Indian Medical Council Act, 193329.
CHAPTER III : HEALTH
(1) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular-
(a) accumulation of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages, and disposed of in a suitable manner;
(b) the floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant, where necessary, or by some other effective method;
(c) Where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided and maintained;
(d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall-
(i) where they are 30[painted otherwise than with washable water-paint] or varnished, be repainted or revarnished at least once in every period of five years;
31[(ia) Where they are painted with washable water-paint, be repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least once in every period of three years and washed at least once in every period of six months;]
(ii) where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervious surfaces, be cleaned at least once in every period of fourteen months by such method as may be prescribed;
(iii) in any other case, be kept whitewashed or colour washed, and the whitewashing or colourwashing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months;
7[(dd) all doors and window frames and other wooden or metallic framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and the painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in every period of five years;]
(e) the dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register.
(2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried on 32[in a factory or class or description of factories or any part of a factory or class or description of factories], it is not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the provisions of sub-section (1), the State Government may by order exempt such factory or class or description of factories 7[or part] from any of the provisions of that sub-section and specify alternative methods for keeping the factory in a clean state.
12. Disposal of wastes and effluents
33[(1) Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and for their disposal.]
(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be made under sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in accordance with sub-section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be prescribed.
13. Ventilation and temperature
(1) Effective and suitable provision shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom
(a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and
(b) such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health;
and in particular,-
(i) walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as practicable;
(ii) where the nature of the work carried on in the factory involves, or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high temperatures, such adequate measures as are practicable shall be taken to protect the workers there from, by separating the process which produces such temperatures from the workroom, by insulating the hot parts or by other effective means.
(2) The State Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class or description of factories or parts thereof and direct that 18[proper measuring instruments, at such places and in such position as may be specified, shall be provided and such records, as may be prescribed, shall be maintained.]
34[(3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperatures in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may, without prejudice to the rules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier, an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion, should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.]
14. Dust and fume
(1) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.
(2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless effective measures have been taken to prevent such accumulation of fumes therefrom as are likely to be injurious to workers employed in the room.
15. Artificial humidification
(1) In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules,-
(a) prescribing standards of humidification;
(b) regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air;
(c) directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity of the air to be correctly carried out and recorded;
(d) prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.
(2) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall be effectively purified before it is so used.
(3) If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified under sub-section (2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measures which in his opinion would be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before specified date.
(1) No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in every work room of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act at least 35[9.9 cubic metres] and of a factory built after the commencement of this Act at least 36[4.2 cubic metres] or space for every worker employed therein, and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of any space which is more than 37[4.2metres] above the level of the floor of the room.
(3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of workers who may, in compliance with the provisions of this section, be employed in the room.
(4) The Chief Inspector may, by order in writing exempt subject to such conditions, if any, as he may think fit to impose, any workroom from the provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
(1) In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.
(2) In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and so far as compliance with the provisions of any rules made under sub-section (3) of section 13 will allow, free from obstruction.
(3) In every factory effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of-
(a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface;
(b) the formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye-strain or the risk of accident to any worker.
(4) The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting for factories or for any class or description of factories or for any manufacturing process.
18. Drinking water
(1) In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.
(2) All such points shall be legibly marked "drinking water" in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory, and no such point shall be situated within 38[six metres of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carrying sullage or effluent or any other source of contamination] unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.
(3) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.
(4) In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the State Government may make rules for securing compliance with the provisions of sub-sections (1),(2) and (3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories.
19. Latrines and urinals
(1) In every factory-
(a) sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times while they are at the factory;
(b) separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers;
(c) such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, and no latrine or urinal shall, unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector, communicate with any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage;
(d) all such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at all times;
(e) sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to keep clean latrines, urinals and washing places.
(2) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed-
(a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types;
(b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of 39[ninety centimetres], of the latrines and urinals and the sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a smooth polished impervious surface;
(c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (1), the floors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.
(3) The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in any factory in proportion to the numbers of male and female workers ordinarily employed therein, and provide for such further matters in respect of sanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
(1) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.
(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and the number of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.
(3) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the Spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.
(4) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees.
CHAPTER IV : SAFETY
21. Fencing of machinery
(1) In every factory the following, namely:
(i) every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to a prime mover, whether the prime mover or flywheel is in the engine house or not;
(ii) the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water turbine;
(iii) any part of a stock-bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe; and
(iv) unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if they were securely fenced, the following, namely,-
(a) every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary convertor;
(b) every part of transmission machinery; and
(c) every dangerous part of any other machinery;
shall be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction which 40[shall be constantly maintained and kept in position] while the parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion or in use:
41[PROVIDED that for the purpose of determining whether any part of machinery is in such position or is of such construction as to be safe as aforesaid, account shall not be taken of any occasion when-
(i) it is necessary to make an examination of any part of the machinery aforesaid while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination, to carry out lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion, being an examination or operation which it is necessary to be carried out while that part of the machinery is in motion, or
(ii) in the case of any part of a transmission machinery used in such process as may be prescribed (being a process of a continuous nature the carrying on of which shall be, or is likely to be, substantially interfered with by the stoppage of that part of the machinery), it is necessary to make an examination of such part of the machinery while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination, to carry out any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion,
and such examination or operation is made or carried out in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 22.]
(2) The State Government may by rules prescribe such further precautions as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular machinery or part thereof, or exempt, subject to such condition as may be prescribed, for securing the safety of the workers, any particular machinery or part thereof from the provisions of this section.
22. Work on or near machinery in motion
(1) 42[Where in any factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred to in section 21, while the machinery is in motion, or, as a result of such examination, to carry out-
(a) in a case referred to in clause (i) of the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 21, lubrication or other adjusting operation; or
(b) in a case referred to in clause (ii) of the proviso aforesaid, any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication or other adjusting operation,
while the machinery is in motion, such examination or operation shall be made or carried out only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing (which shall be supplied by the occupier) whose name has been recorded in the register prescribed in this behalf and who has been furnished with a certificate of this appointment, and while he is so engaged-
(a) such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless-
(i) the belt is not more than fifteen centimetres in width;
(ii) the pulley is normally for the purpose of drive and not merely a fly-wheel or balance wheel (in which case a belt is not permissible);
(iii) the belt joint is either laced or flush with the belt;
(iv) the belt, including the joint and the pulley rim, are in good repair;
(v) there is reasonable clearance between the pulley and any fixed plant or structure;
(vi) secure foothold and, where necessary, secure handhold, are provided for the operator; and
(vii) any ladder in use for carrying out any examination or operation aforesaid is securely fixed or lashed or is firmly held by a second person.]
(b) without prejudice to any other provision of this Act relating to the fencing of machinery, every set screw, bolt and key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion, and all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing in motion with which such worker would otherwise be liable to come into contact, shall be securely fenced to prevent such contact.
43[(2) No woman or young person shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime mover or of any transmission machinery while the prime mover or transmission machinery is in motion, or to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof would expose the woman or young person to risk of injury from any moving part either of that machine or of any adjacent machinery.]
(3) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of factories, the cleaning, lubricating or adjusting by any person of specified parts of machinery when those parts are in motion.
23. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines
(1) No young person 44[shall be required or allowed to work] at any machine to which this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and-
(a) has received sufficient training in work at the machine, or
(b) is under adequate supervision by a person who has a through knowledge and experience of the machine.
(2) Sub-section (1) shall apply to such machines as may be prescribed by the State Government, being machines which in its opinion are of such a dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with.
24. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power
(1) In every factory-
(a) suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery, and such gear or appliances shall be so constructed, placed and maintained as to prevent the belt from creeping back on to the fast pulley;
(b) driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shafting in motion.
(2) In every factory suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinery shall be provided and maintained in every workroom:
PROVIDED that in respect of factories in operation before the commencement of this Act, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply only to workrooms in which electricity is used as power.
45[(3) When a device, which can inadvertently shift from "off " to "on" position, is provided in a factory to cut off power, arrangements shall be provided for locking the device in safe position to prevent accidental starting of the transmission machinery or other machines to which the device is fitted.]
25. Self-acting machines
No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall, if the space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to pass, whether in the course of his employment or otherwise, be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of 46[forty-five centimetres] from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine:
PROVIDED that the Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a machine installed before the commencement of this Act which does not comply with the requirements of this section on such conditions for ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose.
26. Casing of new machinery
(1) In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,-
(a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger;
(b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require frequent adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as to be as safe as it would be if it were completely encased.
(2) Whoever sells or lets on hire or, as agent of a seller or hirer, causes or procures to be sold or let on hire, for use in a factory any machinery driven by power which does not comply with the provisions of 47[sub-section (1) or any rules made under sub-section (3)], shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees or with both.
48[(3) The State Government may make rules specifying further safeguards to be provided in respect of any other dangerous part of any particular machine or class or description of machines.]
27. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers
No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work:
PROVIDED that if the feed-end of a cotton-opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the Inspector may in any particular case specify in writing, women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end is situated.
28. Hoists and lifts
(1) In every factory-
(a) every hoist and lift shall be-
(i) of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength;
(ii) properly maintained, and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination;
(b) every hoistway and liftway shall be sufficiently protected by an enclosure fitted with gates, and the hoist or lift and every such enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any person or thing from being trapped between any part of the hoist or lift and any fixed structure or moving part;
(c) the maximum safe working load shall be plainly marked on every hoist or lift, and no load greater than such load shall be carried thereon;
(d) the cage of every hoist or lift used for carrying persons shall be fitted with a gate on each side from which access is afforded to a landing;
(e) every gate referred to in clause (b) or clause (d) shall be fitted with interlocking or other efficient device to secure that the gate cannot be opened except when the cage is at the landing and that the cage cannot be moved unless the gate is closed.
(2) The following additional requirements shall apply to hoists and lifts used for carrying persons and installed or reconstructed in a factory after the commencement of this Act, namely:
(a) where the cage is supported by rope or chain, there shall be at least two ropes or chains separately connected with the cage and balance weight, and each rope or chain with its attachments shall be capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage together with its maximum load;
(b) efficient devices shall be provided and maintained capable of supporting the cage together with its maximum load in the event of breakage of the ropes, chains or attachments;
(c) an efficient automatic device shall be provided and maintained to prevent the cage from over-running.
(3) The Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a hoist or lift installed in a factory before the commencement of this Act which does not fully comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) upon such conditions for ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose.
(4) The State Government may, if in respect of any class or description of hoist or lift, it is of opinion that it would be unreasonable to enforce any requirement of sub-sections (1) and (2), by order direct such requirement shall not apply to such class or description of hoist or lift.
4[Explanation: For the purposes of this section, no lifting machine or appliance shall be deemed to be a hoist or lift unless it has a platform or cage, the direction or movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides.]
6[29. Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles
(1) In any factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting machine (other than a hoist and lift) and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials:
(a) all parts, including the working gear, whether fixed or movable, of every lifting machine and every chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be-
(i) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from defects;
(ii) properly maintained; and
(iii) thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of twelve months, or at such intervals as the Chief Inspector may specify in writing; and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination;
(b) no lifting machine and no chain, rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond the safe working load which shall be plainly marked thereon together with an identification mark and duly entered in the prescribed register; and where this is not practicable, a table showing the safe working loads of every kind and size of lifting machine or, chain, rope or lifting tackle in use shall be displayed in prominent positions on the premises;
(c) while any person is employed or working on or near the wheel track of a travelling crane in any place where he would be liable to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within 49[six metres] of that place.
(2) The State Government may make rules in respect of any lifting machine or any chain, rope or lifting tackle used in factories-
(a) prescribing further requirements to be complied with in addition to those set out in this section;
(b) providing for exemption from compliance with all or any of the requirements of this section, where in its opinion, such compliance is unnecessary or impracticable.
(3) For the purposes of this section a lifting machine or a chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be deemed to have been thoroughly examined if a visual examination supplemented, if necessary, by other means and by the dismantling of parts of the gear, has been carried out as carefully as the conditions permit in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined.
Explanation: In this sections,
(a) "lifting machine" means a crane, crab, winch, teagle, pulley block, gin wheel, transporter or runway;
50[(b) "lifting tackle" means any chain, sling, rope sling, hook, shackle, swivel, coupling, socket, clamp, tray or similar appliance, whether fixed or movable, used in connection with the raising or lowering of persons, or loads by use of lifting machines.]
30. Revolving machinery
(1) 51[In every factory] in which the process of grinding is carried on there shall be permanently affixed to or placed near each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel, the speed of the shaft or spindle upon which the wheel is mounted, and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or spindle necessary to secure such safe working peripheral speed.
(2) The speeds indicated in notices under sub-section (1) shall not be exceeded.
(3) Effective measures shall be taken in every factory to ensure that the safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, fly-wheel, pulley, disc or similar appliance driven by power is not exceeded.
31. Pressure plant
52[(1) If in any factory, any plant or machinery or any part thereof is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not exceeded.]
(2) The State Government may make rules providing for the examination and testing of any plant or machinery such as is referred to in sub-section (1) and prescribing such other safety measures in relation thereto as may in its opinion be necessary in any factory or class or description of factories.
53[(3) The State Government may, by rules, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or machinery referred to in sub-section (1) from the provisions of this section.]
32. Floors, stairs and means of access
In every factory-
(a) all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained 54[and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip], and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages, and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails;
(b) there shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, be provided and maintained safe means of access to every place at which any person is at any time required to work.
55[(c) When any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the person so working.]
33. Pits, sumps, opening in floors, etc.
(1) In every factory every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which by reason of its depth, situation, construction or contents, is or may be a source of danger, shall be either securely covered or securely fenced.
(2) The State Government may, by order in writing, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance with the provisions of this section.
34. Excessive weights
(1) No person shall be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury.
(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the maximum weights which may be lifted, carried or moved by adult men, adult women, adolescents and children employed in factories or in any class or description of factories or in carrying on any specific process.
35. Protection of eyes
In respect of any such manufacturing process carried on in any factory as may be prescribed, being a process which involves-
(a) risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the process, or
(b) risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light,
the State Government may by rules require that effective screens or suitable goggles shall be provided for the protection of persons employed on, or in the immediately vicinity of, the process.
55[36. Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc.
(1) No person shall be required or allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in any factory in which any gas, fume, vapour or dust is likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being overcome thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or other effective means of egress.
(2) No person shall be required or allowed to enter any confined space as is referred to in sub-section (1), until all practicable measures have been taken to remove any gas, fume, vapour or dust, which may be present so as to bring its level within the permissible limits and to prevent any ingress of such gas, fume, vapour or dust and unless-
(a) a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person, based on a test carried out by himself that the space is reasonably free from dangerous gas, fume, vapour or dust; or
(b) such person is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope the free end of which is held by a person outside the confined space.]
56[36A. Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light
In any factory-
(a) no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space,57[unless adequate safety devices are provided]; and
(b) if any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space no lamp or light other than that of flame-proof construction shall be permitted to be used therein.]
37. Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc.
(1) Where in any factory any manufacturing process produces dust, gas, fume or vapour of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode to ignition, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by-
(a) effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process;
(b) removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust, gas, fume or vapour;
(c) exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.
(2) Where in any factory the plant or machinery used in a process such as is referred to in sub-section (1) is not so constructed as to withstand the probable pressure which such an explosion as aforesaid would produce, all practicable measures shall be taken to restrict the spread and effects of the explosion by the provisions in the plant or machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective appliances.
(3) Where any part of the plant or machinery in a factory contains any explosive or inflammable gas or vapour under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, that part shall not be opened except in accordance with the following provisions, namely:
(a) before the fastening of any joint of any pipe connected with the part or the fastening of the cover of any opening into the part is loosened, any flow of the gas or vapour into the part of any such pipe shall be effectively stopped by a stop-valve or other means;
(b) before any such fastening as aforesaid is removed, all practicable measures shall be taken to reduce the pressure of the gas or vapour in the part or pipe to atmospheric pressure;
(c) where any such fastening as aforesaid has been loosened or removed effective measures shall be taken to prevent any explosive or inflammable gas or vapour from entering the part of pipe until the fastening has been secured, or, as the case may be, securely replaced:
PROVIDED that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of plant or machinery installed in the open air.
(4) No plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any explosive or inflammable substance shall be subjected in any factory to any welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operation which involves the application of heat unless adequate measures have first been taken to remove such substance and any fumes arising therefrom or to render such substance and fumes non-explosive or non-inflammable, and no such substance shall be allowed to enter such plant, tank or vessel after any such operation until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance.
(5) The State Government may by rules exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed any factory or class or description of factories from compliance with all or any of the provisions of this section.
58[38. Precautions in case of fire
(1) In every factory, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread, both internally and externally, and to provide and maintain-
(a) safe means of escape for all persons in the event of a fire, and
(b) the necessary equipment and facilities for extinguishing fire.
(2) Effective measures shall be taken to ensure that in every factory all the workers are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and have been adequately trained in the routine to be followed in such cases.
(3) The State Government may make rules, in respect of any factory or class or description of factories, requiring the measures to be adopted to give effect to the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2).
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), if the Chief Inspector, having regard to the nature of the work carried on in any factory, the construction of such factory, special risk to life or safety, or any other circumstances, is of the opinion that the measures provided in the factory, whether as prescribed or not, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), are inadequate, he may, by order in writing, require that such additional measures as he may consider reasonable and necessary, be provided in the factory before such date as is specified in the order.]
39. Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability
If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life, he may serve on 59[the occupier or manager or both] of the factory an order in writing requiring him before a specified date-
(a) to furnish such drawings, specifications and other particulars as may be necessary to determine whether such building, ways, machinery or plant can be used with safety, or
(b) to carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof.
40. Safety of building and machinery
(1) If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on 59[the occupier or manager or both] of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.
(2) If it appears to the Inspector that the use of any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory involves imminent danger to human life or safety, he may serve on 60[the occupier or manager or both] of the factory an order in writing prohibiting its use until it has been properly repaired or altered.
61[40A. Maintenance of buildings
If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building in a factory is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be taken and requiring the same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.
40B. Safety officers
(1) In every factor,-
(i) wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or
(ii) wherein, the opinion of the State Government any manufacturing process or operation is carried on, which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to health, to the persons employed in the factory,
the occupier shall, if so required by the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette, employ such number of Safety Officers as may be specified in that notification.
(2) The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of Safety Officers shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.]
41. Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter
The State Government may make rules requiring the provision in any factory or in any class or description of factories of such further 62[devices and measures] for securing the safety of persons employed therein as it may deem necessary.
63[CHAPTER IV-A : PROVISIONS RELATING TO HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
41A. Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees
(1) The State Government may, for purposes of advising it to consider applications for grant of permission for the initial location of a factory involving a hazardous process or for the expansion of any such factory, appoint a Site Appraisal Committee consisting of-
(a) the Chief Inspector of the State who shall be its Chairman;
(b) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution appointed by the Central Government under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974);
(c) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 3 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);
(d) a representative of the State Board appointed under section 4 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974);
(e) a representative of the State Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 5 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);
(f) a representative of the Department of Environment in the State;
(g) a representative of the Meteorological Department of the Government of India;
(h) an expert in the field of occupational health; and
(i) a representative of the Town Planning Department of the State Government, and not more than five other members who may be co-opted by the State Government who shall be-
(i) a scientist having specialised knowledge of the hazardous process which will be involved in the factory,
(ii) a representative of the local authority within whose jurisdiction the factory is to be established, and
(iii) not more than three other persons as deemed fit by the State Government.
(2) The Site Appraisal Committee shall examine an application for the establishment of a factory involving hazardous process and make its recommendation to the State Government within a period of ninety days of the receipt of such application in the prescribed form.
(3) Where any process relates to a factory owned or controlled by the Central Government or to a corporation or company owned or controlled by the Central Government, the State Government shall co-opt in the Site Appraisal Committee a representative nominated by the Central Government as a member of that Committee.
(4) The Site Appraisal Committee shall have power to call for any information from the person making an application for the establishment or expansion of a factory involving a hazardous process.
(5) Where the State Government has granted approval to an application for the establishment or expansion of a factory involving a hazardous process, it shall not be necessary for an applicant to obtain a further approval from the Central Board or the State Board established under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974) and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981).
41B. Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier
(1) The occupier of every factory involving a hazardous process shall disclose in the manner prescribed all information regarding dangers, including health hazards and the measures to overcome such hazards arising from the exposure to or handling of the materials or substances in the manufacture, transportation, storage and other processes, to the workers employed in the factory, the Chief Inspector, the local authority within whose jurisdiction the factory is situate and the general public in the vicinity.
(2) The occupier shall, at the time of registering the factory involving a hazardous process, lay down a detailed policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers employed therein and intimate such policy to the Chief Inspector and the local authority and, thereafter, at such intervals as may be prescribed, inform the Chief Inspector and the local authority of any change made in the said policy.
(3) The information furnished under sub-section (1) shall include accurate information as to the quantity, specifications and other characteristics of wastes and the manner of their disposal.
(4) Every occupier shall, with the approval of the Chief Inspector, draw up an on-site emergency plan and detailed disaster control measures for his factory and make known to the workers employed therein and to the general public living in the vicinity of the factory the safety measures required to be taken in the event of an accident taking place.
(5) Every occupier of a factory shall,-
(a) if such factory engaged in a hazardous process on the commencement of the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987, within a period of thirty days of such commencement; and
(b) if such factory proposes to engage in a hazardous process at any time after such commencement, within a period of thirty days before the commencement of such process,
inform the Chief Inspector of the nature and details of the process in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.
(6) Where any occupier of a factory contravenes the provisions of sub-section (5), the licence issued under section 6 to such factory shall, notwithstanding any penalty to which the occupier of factory shall be subjected to under the provisions of this Act, be liable for cancellation.
(7) The occupier of a factory involving a hazardous process shall, with the previous approval of the Chief Inspector, lay down measures for the handling, usage, transportation and storage of hazardous substances inside the factory premises and the disposal of such substances outside the factory premises and publicise them in the manner prescribed among the workers and the general public living in the vicinity.
41C. Specific responsibility of the occupier in relation to hazardous processes
Every occupier of a factory involving any hazardous process shall-
(a) maintain accurate and up-to-date health records or, as the case may be, medical records of the workers in the factory who are exposed to any chemical, toxic or any other harmful substances which are manufactured, stored, handled or transported and such records shall be accessible to the workers subject to such conditions as may be prescribed;
(b) appoint persons who possess qualifications and experience in handling hazardous substances and are competent to supervise such handling within the factory and to provide at the working place all the necessary facilities for protecting the workers in the manner prescribed :
PROVIDED that where any question arises as to the qualifications and experience of a person so appointed, the decision of the Chief Inspector shall be final;
(c) provide for medical examination of every worker-
(a) before such worker is assigned to a job involving the handling of, or working with, a hazardous substance, and
(b) while continuing in such job, and after he has ceased to work in such job, at intervals not exceeding twelve months, in such manner as may be prescribed.
41D. Power of Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee
(1) The Central Government may, in the event of the occurrence of an extraordinary situation involving a factory engaged in a hazardous process, appoint an Inquiry Committee to inquire into the standards of health and safety observed in the factory with a view to finding out the causes of any failure or neglect in the adoption of any measures or standards prescribed for the health and safety of the workers employed in the factory or the general public affected, or likely to be affected, due to such failure or neglect and for the prevention and recurrence of such extraordinary situations in future in such factory or elsewhere.
(2) The Committee appointed under sub-section (1) shall consist of a Chairman and two other members and the terms of reference of the Committee and the tenure of office of its members shall be such as may be determined by the Central Government according to the requirements of the situation.
(3) The recommendations of the Committee shall be advisory in nature.
41E. Emergency standards
(1) Where the Central Government is satisfied that no standards of safety have been prescribed in respect of a hazardous process or class of hazardous processes, or where the standards so prescribed are inadequate, it may direct the Director-General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute or any institutions specialised in matters relating to standards of safety in hazardous processes, to lay down emergency standards for enforcement of suitable standards in respect of such hazardous processes.
(2) The emergency standards laid down under sub-section (1) shall, until they are incorporated in the rules made under this Act, be enforceable and have the same effect as if they had been incorporated in the rules made under this Act.
41F. Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances
(1) The maximum permissible threshold limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances in manufacturing processes (whether hazardous or otherwise) in any factory shall be of the value indicated in the Second Schedule.
(2) The Central Government may, at any time, for the purpose of giving effect to any scientific proof obtained from specialised institutions or experts in the field, by notification in the Official Gazette, make changes in the said Schedule.
41G. Workers' participation in safety management
(1) The occupier shall, in every factory where a hazardous process takes place, or where hazardous substances are used or handled, set up a Safety Committee consisting of equal number of representatives of workers and management to promote cooperation between the workers and the management in maintaining proper safety and health at work and to review periodically the measures taken in that behalf :
PROVIDED that the State Government may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded, exempt the occupier of any factory or class of factories from setting up such Committee.
(2) The composition of the Safety Committee, the tenure of office of its members and their rights and duties shall be such as may be prescribed.
41H. Right of workers to warn about imminent danger
(1) Where the workers employed in any factory engaged in a hazardous process have reasonable apprehension that there is a likelihood of imminent danger to their lives or health due to any accident, they may bring the same to the notice of the occupier, agent, manager or any other person who is incharge of the factory or the process concerned directly or thorough their representatives in the Safety Committee and simultaneously being the same to the notice of the Inspector.
(2) It shall be the duty of such occupier, agent, manager or the person incharge of the factory or process to take immediate action if he is satisfied about the existence of such imminent danger and send a report forthwith of the action taken to the nearest Inspector.
(3) If the occupier, agent, manager or the person incharge referred to in sub-section (2) is not satisfied about the existence of any such imminent danger as apprehended by the workers, he shall, nevertheless, refer the matter forthwith to the nearest Inspector whose decision on the question of the existence of such imminent danger shall be final.]